Grove City College Publications

 

Books to Renew the Mind
125 Significant Books Honoring the
125th Anniversary of Grove City College: 1876 - 2001

The things I want to know are in books.
- Abraham Lincoln -

The University of Chicago earned an international reputation by publishing The Great Books, and St. John's College (MD) secured worldwide standing through featuring a classical curriculum. But no college or university publishes a recommended reading list of classical and contemporary books, which incorporate and integrate the Christian faith into education and learning. Organized into seven areas of vital interest to Christians, these books address:

Culture
Economics
Education
History
Politics
Science
Theology

Written to commemorate the 125th anniversary of Grove City College, this annotated reading list of 125 books intends to:

  • Provide prospective students and their parents with a catalogue of books considered significant to the faculty of Grove City College;
  • Encourage greater breadth and depth of reading among Grove City College students;
  • Help Grove City College students prepare for Rhodes, Marshall, and Fulbright Scholarship competitions, and other post-graduate opportunities;
  • Assist alumni and other interested persons in quickly identifying significant books on subjects of critical concern; and
  • Invite interaction with readers by allowing them to suggest additions and deletions of books and to recommend books in other significant areas of interest.

Before selecting 125 books, a six-member Editorial Committee of the humanities faculty solicited recommendations from all Grove City College faculty. After receiving their recommendations, the Editorial Committee chose 125 books for annotation. Then 28 faculty wrote the annotations, which the Editorial Committee edited for consistency. Mrs. Barbara M. Jones and Mr. Travis Barham merit special commendation for their work in perfecting the document.

The Editorial Committee includes:

Gary S. Smith (Chairman and Professor of History)
Janice B. Brown (English)
Beverly H. Carter (Music)
Marvin J. Folkertsma (Political Science)
T. David Gordon (Religion)
Gillis J. Harp (History)

The following 28 faculty contributed annotations:

Biology: Durwood Ray, Arnie Sodergren, Mark Weber
Business: John Sparks, L. John Van Til
Chemistry: Joseph Augsburger, David Jones,
Economics: Jeff Herbener, G. Dirk Mateer, Tracy Miller
Education: Linda Culbertson, Roger Mackey
History: Gillis Harp, Gary Smith
Music: Beverly Carter
Sociology: David Ayers, George Van Campbell
Philosophy: Garey Spradley
Physics: Richard Leo
Political Science: Michael Coulter, Marvin Folkertsma
Psychology: Peter Hill, Kevin Seybold, Gary Welton
Religion: James Bibza, T. David Gordon, Paul Kemeny, Paul Schaefer

The Grove City College faculty acknowledges the truth spoken by Ray Bradbury, who said:

"You don't have to burn books to destroy a culture. Just get people to stop reading them."

Therein rest the goals of this annotated reading list: to encourage excellence in reading and to preserve and perfect American culture. Books To Renew The Mind takes for granted that all books must bow before the bar of Holy Scripture.

Charles W. Dunn
Dean of International Studies, Graduate Advancement and Faculty Development
Grove City College
Grove City, Pennsylvania

The failure to read good books both enfeebles the vision and strengthens our most fatal tendency - the belief that the here and now is all there is.
- Allan Bloom -

Culture

Bellah, Robert et al. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. 1985.
Blackwell, Albert L. The Sacred in Music. 2000.
Clapp, Rodney, ed. The Consuming Passion: Christianity and the Consumer Culture. 1997.
Evans, C. Stephen. Wisdom and Humanness in Psychology: Prospects for a Christian Approach. 1989.
Frankl, Viktor E. Man's Search for Meaning. 1963.
Gaede, S. D. Where Gods May Dwell: Understanding the Human Condition. 1985.
Gilder, George. Men and Marriage. 1986.
Guinness, Os and John Seel, eds. No God But God: Breaking with the Idols of our Age. 1992.
James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience. 1902.
Lasch, Christopher. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. 1978.
Lewis, C. S. The Abolition of Man. 1944.
Lockerbie, D. Bruce. The Timeless Moment: Creativity and the Christian Faith. 1980.
Lyon, David. Sociology and the Human Image. 1983.
Myers, Kenneth A. All God's Children and Blue Suede Shoes: Christians and Popular Culture. 1989.
Newbigin, Lesslie. Foolishness to the Greeks: The Gospel and Western Culture. 1986.
Niebuhr, H. Richard. Christ and Culture. 1951.
Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. 1985.
Rookmaaker, H. R. The Creative Gift: Essays on Art and the Christian Life. 1981.
Rookmaaker, H. R. Modern Art and the Death of a Culture. 1970.
Ryken, Leland. Culture in Christian Perspective: A Door to Understanding and Enjoying the Arts. 1996.
Ryken, Leland. Redeeming the Time: A Christian Approach to Work and Leisure. 1995.
Smith, Adam. Theory of Moral Sentiments. 1759.
Storkey, Alan. A Christian Social Perspective. 1979.
Twelve Southerners. I'll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition. 1930.
Vitz, Paul C. Psychology as Religion: The Cult of Self-worship. 1977.
Walsh, Brian J. and J. Richard Middleton. The Transforming Vision: Shaping a Christian World View. 1984.

Economics

Bastiat, Frederic. Economic Harmonies. 1850.
Bauer, P. T. Equality, the Third World, and Economic Delusion. 1981.
Chewning, Richard, John Eby and Shirley Roels. Business Through the Eyes of Faith. 1990.
Deming, W. Edwards. The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education. 1993.
Hayek, F. A. Von. The Road to Serfdom. 1944.
Mises, Ludwig Von. Human Action: A Treatise on Economics. 1949.
Nash, Ronald. Poverty and Wealth: The Christian Debate Over Capitalism. 1986.
Novak, Michael. Business as a Calling: Work and the Examined Life. 1996.
Novak, Michael. The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism. 1982.
Roepke, Wilhelm. A Humane Economy: The Social Framework of the Free Market. 1958.
Rosenberg, Milton and L. E. Birdzell. How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World. 1986.
Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 1776.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. 1904.
Wood, Jan. Christians at Work: Not Business as Usual. 1999.

Education

Bloom, Allan. The Closing of the American Mind. 1987.
Buckley, William F. Jr. God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of Academic Freedom. 1951.
D'Souza, Dinesh. Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus. 1991.
Harbison, E. Harris. The Christian Scholar in the Age of Reformation. 1956.
Hirsch. E. D. Jr. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. 1987.
Hodgson, Peter C. God's Wisdom: Toward a Theology of Education. 1999.
Kienel, Paul A., Ollie Gibbs, and Sharon Berry, eds. Philosophy of Christian School Education. 1995.
Malik, Charles H. A Christian Critique of the University. 1982.
Marsden, George. The Outrageous Idea of Christian Scholarship. 1997.
Marsden, George. The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief. 1994.
Newman, John Henry. The Idea of a University. 1852.
Noll, Mark A. The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind. 1994.
Sacks, David and Peter Thiel. The Diversity Myth: Multiculturalism and the Political Intolerance on Campus. 1998.
Wilson, Douglas. Recovering the Lost Tools of Learning: An Approach to Distinctively Christian Education. 1991.

History

Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life. 2000.
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Creators: A History of Heroes of the Imagination. 1992.
Brown, Colin. Christianity and Western Thought: A History of Philosophers, Ideas and Movements. 1990.
Butterfield, Herbert. Christianity and History. 1950.
Fukuyama, Francis. The End of History and the Last Man. 1992.
Gress, David. From Plato to NATO: The Idea of the West and Its Opponents. 1998.
Hatch, Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity. 1989.
Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order. 1996.
Johnson, Paul. Intellectuals. 1988.
Johnson, Paul. Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Nineties. 1992.
Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century. 1939.
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Family. 1966.
Nash, Ronald. Christian Faith and Historical Understanding. 1984.
Niebuhr, Reinhold. Faith and History: A Comparison of Christian and Modern Views of History. 1949.
Niebuhr, Reinhold. The Irony of American History. 1952.
Noll, Mark A., Nathan O. Hatch and George M. Marsden. The Search for Christian America. 1983.
Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787. 1969.

Politics

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1966.
Bandow, Doug. Beyond Good Intentions: A Biblical View of Politics. 1988.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. 1790.
Dunn, Charles W. and J. David Woodard. The Conservative Tradition in America. 1996.
Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist Papers. 1788.
Kirk, Russell. The Conservative Mind from Burke to Santayana. 1953.
Lincoln, Abraham. Speeches and Writings, Vol. 1: 1832-1858; Vol. 2: 1859-1865. 1989, especially Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions.
Locke, John. The Two Treatises of Government. 1690.
Marshall, Paul. Thine is the Kingdom: A Biblical Perspective on the Nature of Government and Politics Today. 1984.
Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. 1859.
Olasky, Marvin. The Tragedy of American Compassion. 1992.
Sowell, Thomas. The Vision of the Anointed: Self-Congratulation as a Basis for Social Policy. 1995.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. 1835, 1840.
Voegelin, Eric. Science, Politics, Gnosticism: Two Essays. 1968.
Weaver, Richard M. Ideas Have Consequences. 1948.

Science

Behe, Michael. Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. 1996.
Brand, Paul and Philip Yancey. Fearfully and Wonderfully Made. 1980.
Dembski, William. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance through Small Probabilities. 1998.
Dembski, William A., ed. Mere Creation: Science, Faith and Intelligent Design. 1998.
Hearn, Walter R. Being a Christian in Science. 1997.
Hummel, Charles. The Galileo Connection. 1986.
Johnson, Phillip. Darwin on Trial. 1991.
Johnson, Phillip. Reason in the Balance. 1995.
Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 1962.
Lindberg, David and Ronald Numbers, eds. God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science. 1986.
Livingstone, David, D. G. Hart, and Mark Noll, eds. Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective. 1999.
Moreland, J. P. Christianity and the Nature of Science. 1989.
Pearcey, Nancy R. and Charles B. Thaxton. The Soul of Science: Christian Faith and Natural Philosophy. 1994.
Ratzsch, Del. Science and Its Limits: The Natural Sciences in Christian Perspective. 2000.
Reichenbach, Bruce R. and V. Elving Anderson. On Behalf of God: A Christian Ethic for Biology. 1995.
Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos. 1993.
Wright, Richard. Biology Through the Eyes of Faith. 1989.

Theology

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. 1265-1273.
Athanasius. The Incarnation of the Word of God. c. 322.
St. Augustine. The City of God. 413-426.
St. Augustine. The Confessions. c. 400.
Calvin, John. The Institutes of the Christian Religion. 1559.
Carter, John D. and Bruce Narramore. The Integration of Psychology and Theology: An Introduction. 1979.
Dillenberger, John, ed. Martin Luther: Selections from His Writings. 1961.
Edwards, Jonathan. Charity and Its Fruits. 1738.
Hoffecker, W. Andrew and Gary Scott Smith, eds. Building a Christian World View Vol. 1: God, Man, and Knowledge. 1986. Vol. 2: The Universe, Society, and Ethics. 1988.
Kuyper, Abraham. Lectures on Calvinism. 1899.
Lewis, C. S. Mere Christianity. 1943.
Lewis, C. S. Miracles: A Preliminary Study. 1947.
Machen, J. Gresham. Christianity and Liberalism. 1923.
MacIntyre, Alasdair. After Virtue. 1981.
Sayers, Dorothy. The Mind of the Maker. 1941.
Schaeffer, Francis. The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer: A Christian Worldview, 5 vols. 1985, especially How Shall We Then Live?, Escape from Reason, and The God Who is There.
Sire, James. The Universe Next Door: A Basic Worldview Catalog. 1997.
Stott, John R. W. The Cross of Christ. 1986.
Van Til, Cornelius. The Defense of the Faith. 1976.
Wells, David F. No Place for Truth, or, Whatever Happened to Evangelical Theology? 1993.
Wolters, Albert M. Creation Regained: Biblical Basics for a Reformational Worldview. 1985.
Wolterstorff, Nicholas. Reason Within the Bounds of Religion. 1976.
 

The man who does not read has no advantage over the man that cannot read.
- Mark Twain -

Authors in alphabetical order with book summaries:

Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologica. (1265-1273).

Best known for his comprehensive attempt to synthesize the philosophy of Aristotle with Scripture, Aquinas was born in Italy in 1225 and later became a Dominican monk. Summa Theologica, "A Summary of Theology," is a textbook in systematic theology that examines God, creation, human nature, intellectual and moral life, Christ, and the sacraments. The work is most famous for offering five "proofs" for the existence of God: motion, causality, contingency, degrees of perfection, and design. From about 1350 until about 1950, orthodox Roman Catholic philosophy rested largely on Aquinas' system, and it remains very important to contemporary Catholicism.

Hannah Arendt. The Origins of Totalitarianism. (1966).

This classic book by one of the most powerful writers of the twentieth century critiques the principal features of Nazism and Bolshevism. Especially important is her argument that these two ideological systems share basic similarities, despite the fact that the regimes built upon them waged a war of annihilation against each other. In short, all totalitarian regimes are fundamentally alike in their unshakable commitment to a fictitious view of the world and in the savage consequences of acting on the "logic of the idea." An indispensable read to gain true insight into what she terms the tragedy of modern times.

Athanasius. The Incarnation of the Word of God. (c. 322).

Athanasius became bishop of Alexandria in 328, and the majority of his ecclesiastical life was spent battling Arianism, the belief that Christ the Son was different (though similar) in substance from the Father. Athanasius led the efforts to teach that the Son was the same in substance with the Father, so that when the Son became incarnate, it was no one less than God who had incarnated. Written almost a decade before the controversy was full-blown, On the Incarnation is much more devotional, and less precisely controversial or polemical, than Athanasius's later arguments would be.

St. Augustine. The City of God. (413-426).

In this monumental work, Augustine developed an understanding of history that profoundly influenced Western civilization for a thousand years. Augustine wrote to refute the charge that Christianity was responsible for the fall of the Roman Empire in 410. He insisted that Rome fell because of the lethargy and apathy of its citizens, not because it had abandoned its pagan gods. More significantly, Augustine argued that the world was composed of two cities-the heavenly city whose residents loved God and sought to serve Him and the earthly city whose members loved Satan and self and sought to further their own desires.

St. Augustine. The Confessions. (c. 400).

One of the leading figures of church history, Augustine served as a bishop in North Africa, played a leading role in consolidating the church's position in the West and defending its doctrines, and wrote many important theological and practical works during the late fourth and early fifth centuries. Often considered the first autobiography, this book describes Augustine's spiritual and intellectual journey through several competing philosophies before becoming a Christian in middle life. It discusses his childhood, inner struggles, battle with sin, worldly ambitions, conversion experience, view of human nature, feelings about death, and many other subjects.

Doug Bandow. Beyond Good Intentions: A Biblical View of Politics. (1988).

Bandow analyzes contemporary American Christian approaches to politics, identifies Biblical principles that are relevant to political life, and discusses how these principles should be applied to government today. He argues that a commitment to justice, righteousness, individual freedom and dignity, and the welfare of the poor should predominate in the political arena. Bandow urges Christians to participate in politics, to work with nonbelievers wherever possible, to clarify the proper role of religion in politics, and to fashion an overarching political philosophy to direct their efforts.

Jacques Barzun. From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life. (2000).

The author of thirty books on cultural history and criticism and a long-time professor at Columbia University, Barzun provides a sweeping account of thought, art, manners, morals, and religion in Western civilization from 1500 to the present. The book explores the impact of four great revolutions-the religious, monarchical, liberal, and social, roughly a hundred years apart-whose "aims and passions still govern our minds and behavior." While Barzun describes the present as a period of decline, he argues that great periods of history often end in decadence, which is a necessary condition for a new outburst of creativity.

Frederic Bastiat. Economic Harmonies. (1850).

This book is a timeless example of sound economic reasoning written by one the finest economists in the Continental Classical tradition. Bastiat showed that the market economy was an integral part of a society of natural order. With the rule of law as the cornerstone of such an order, commerce develops a vast network of harmonious relationships among people. Government intervention is not only unnecessary to sustain a natural order; it rends the social fabric woven by economic harmonies.

P. T. Bauer. Equality, the Third World, and Economic Delusion. (1981).

Bauer turned the world of economic development upside down with this book. He shows that the explanations of the plight of the Third World, which became popular after the Second World War, dissipate in the light of the facts and common sense. In reality, free trade has raised standards of living, as Hong Kong demonstrates, while foreign aid has retarded development, as Africa shows. Bauer traces the willingness of intellectuals to delude themselves about reality by their blind devotion to egalitarian dogmas.

Michael Behe. Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. (1996).

Behe provides an outstanding apologetical tool for laypersons and professionals alike. His thesis-Darwinism has yet to show how evolution has worked to produce complex systems that biochemists observe in certain cells-is not only clearly presented in understandable language for non-scientists, but it is also replete with examples to thoroughly explain and illustrate the true "missing link." Behe separates the technical sections that might bog down non-scientists, making for a very engaging and readable text. The final chapter analyzes William Paley's argument from design, which is crucial to the defense of Christianity, and refutes recent attacks against it by atheists and agnostics.

Robert Bellah et al. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. (1985).

Based on a five-year study of representative American communities, the authors examine the traits, including consciousness, cultural mores, and daily practices, that comprise the national character. Their analysis of the self, marriage, families, political organizations, and ideologies and the resources Americans use to make sense of their lives leads them to conclude that Americans are torn between their strong individualism and their pressing need for community and commitment to the public good.

Albert L. Blackwell. The Sacred in Music. (2000).

Music and religion are perhaps two of the most difficult areas of human experience to put into words, yet they are also two of the areas that touch our lives so profoundly. Prompted by what he saw as "the discrepancy ... between the centrality of music in religious experience and the peripheral attention given to music in the academic study of religion," Blackwell places us in his debt with this far-reaching study of the sacred significance of music. Extensive in scope as it explores the connections between music theory and theology, this work is for all who seek greater understanding of the role music can play in our spiritual lives.

Allan Bloom. The Closing of the American Mind. (1987).

Above all, Bloom laments the decline and decay of the humanities, universities, and traditional, spiritually-rooted civilization. He insists that in Western civilization "mind" is being implicitly replaced by feelings and sensation, if not simple, existential meaninglessness. Like British historian Paul Johnson, he views the political and social crises of the twentieth century as an intellectual crisis. The book is great food for thought for those who wish to open their minds.

Daniel J. Boorstin. The Creators: A History of Heroes of the Imagination. (1992).

As in his Pulitzer-Prize winning The Discoverers, Boorstin introduces us to a host of personalities who have made a difference in our world, this time championing the creative gift. Spanning three millennia, from ancient religions to modern film, Boorstin never fails to intrigue us, not only with fascinating tales of individual genius, but also with clear insight into how each has served to shape our world.

Paul Brand and Philip Yancey. Fearfully and Wonderfully Made. (1980).

Written by Brand, a practicing physician, and Yancey, a journalist, this book reveals the magnificence of God's creative powers by examining the human body. They analyze the body and focus on four of its parts: cells, bones, skin, and motion. This book also describes the far-reaching ramifications of our beautifully created bodies. Our eyes, for example, enable us to appreciate "a rainbow, a kingfisher plunging into a stream, or a subtle change of expression in the face of a dear friend." This book helps allow us to see God's creative skills as well as how His Spirit directs His Body on earth.

Colin Brown. Christianity and Western Thought: A History of Philosophers, Ideas and Movements. (1990).

Beginning with Socrates and the Sophists, and concluding with Immanuel Kant, Brown examines the leading philosophers and theologians, key ideas, and critical movements that have shaped and reshaped Western culture's understanding of the Christian faith. While Brown is a conservative Protestant who constructively critiques numerous philosophical developments, thinkers, and ideas, he provides a broad historical overview of the history of the sometimes compatible, and sometimes combative, relationship between faith and reason.

William F. Buckley, Jr. God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of Academic Freedom. (1951).

This was Buckley's first book, written shortly after his graduation from college. When he penned this volume, Buckley was a voice crying in the wilderness. Humanism was winning in the classrooms of Yale, and God was losing. This book is justly famous for setting the conservative tone Buckley has used ever since in his many books, articles, and addresses.

Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France. (1790).

This classic work by an Anglo-Irish philosopher and statesman warned readers about the dangers involved in French revolutionary ideology. Writing in 1790, Burke correctly predicted that the French Revolution would produce a reign of terror and a military dictatorship. He provided a coherent political philosophy based on practical reason and historical experience that advocated pursuing limited and feasible goals for particular communities at a particular time. Burke denounced the Revolution as the natural result of an Enlightenment philosophy that overemphasized reason and strove to reshape society in accordance with abstract principles.

Herbert Butterfield. Christianity and History. (1950).

A distinguished Cambridge historian of science examines the relationship between the Christian faith and historical study. Butterfield ranges over this complex territory with a graceful clarity. Arguing that Christianity is preeminently an historical faith, he explores how history illustrates a Christian understanding of human nature and how Christian historians should approach providential readings of the human past. Given the ahistorical perspective of most American Christians, a rediscovery of this modest volume would be very helpful.

John Calvin. The Institutes of the Christian Religion. (1559).

While Martin Luther was the great prophetic voice of the Evangelical and Reformation movement of the sixteenth century, Calvin was the century's eloquent defender of Biblical and Evangelical theology. While Luther and Calvin differed on some issues, they shared two major concerns. First, they both argued that the final authority in all matters of faith and practice must be the inspired, infallible Bible, not the Bible and sacred church tradition. Second, they rejected as unbiblical the medieval idea of justification (being in right relationship with God) as a process of moral renewal that combined God's grace through the sacraments and human works of cooperative love. They maintained instead that people became right with God only though His grace alone which they received through trust alone in the complete and finished work of Christ alone. Calvin's Institutes provides modern readers with insight into this sixteenth century debate that clearly still has implications for the modern church in its teaching, life, and mission.

John D. Carter and Bruce Narramore. The Integration of Psychology and Theology: An Introduction. (1979).

This brief and easy-to-read introductory book reviews different approaches toward the interface of psychology and Christian theology along the lines of H. Richard Niebuhr's Christ and Culture typology. The authors defend what they believe to be a true integration position (similar to Niebuhr's "Christ transforming culture") and point out the strengths and limitations of each model. Readers will also find helpful chapters on the historical encounter between the church and psychology, barriers to integrating psychology and Christian theology, and the potential aspects of integration between psychology and Christianity.

Richard Chewning, John Eby and Shirley Roels. Business Through the Eyes of Faith. (1990).

Chewning, the principal author, is well known for his Baylor University projects on relating Christian principles to business, economics, and public policy. This volume stresses the connection between sound Biblical principles and good management. Motivation, communication, leadership, and profit are all discussed from a perspective that recognizes the thrust of modern business practice and how it can be shaped by Scriptural concepts.

Rodney Clapp, ed. The Consuming Passion: Christianity and the Consumer Culture. (1997).

A group of theologians, sociologists, economists, psychologists, and ecologists explain the nature and impact of consumer culture, which they describe as a way of life involving attitudes, behaviors, and purposes for living. Individual chapters evaluate the relationship between money and happiness, Catholic and Protestant understandings of capitalism, the threat of consumerism to the environment, different conceptions of stewardship, and a theology of consumption. These essays examine how consumer culture affects people and advise Christians how to respond to its challenges.

William Dembski. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance through Small Probabilities. (1998).

This book presents a method for detecting intelligent causes in the formation of the universe or what the author calls "the design inference." It holds that intelligent causes are recognized in events of small probability that are specified or events that conform to independently given patterns claimed to successfully eliminate chance. It attempts to show that undirected natural causes are incomplete and lacking in explanatory power, whereas design can be inferred when "patterned improbability" is detected and demonstrated. Although heavy in statistical language, portions of the book can be understood by non-technical readers.

William A. Dembski, ed. Mere Creation: Science, Faith, and Intelligent Design. (1998).

This book is a compilation of essays written by a number of important figures in the intelligent design movement, including Michael Behe, David Berlinski, William Craig, Sigrid Harwig-Scherer, Phillip Johnson, J. P. Moreland, Del Ratzsch, Hugh Ross, Siegfried Scherer. The disciplines the authors represent include mathematics, engineering, anthropology, physics, astrophysics, biology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Although some sections are difficult to read, this is an important contribution to the ongoing challenge of philosophical naturalism in science.

W. Edwards Deming. The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education. (1993).

Describing prevailing management style as a prison, Deming shows how a style based on cooperation rather than competition can help people develop joy in work and learning at the same time that it brings about long-term success in the market. Indicative of Deming's philosophy is his recommendation to abolish performance reviews on the job and grades in school. If widely employed, his approach could transform the present style of confrontational management and enable workers to be more productive. Deming's work should be required reading for all managers and those who aspire to become managers.

John Dillenberger, ed. Martin Luther: Selections from His Writings. (1961).

This is a collection of some of the most important and influential works of the man who began the Protestant Reformation in 1517 by posting 95 theses he wished to debate with Catholic authorities. In addition to these theses, the book also includes three of Luther's prefaces to Biblical books, selections from The Bondage of the Will and his commentary on Galatians, several sermons, his essay on secular authority, and his three best known treatises: "The Freedom of the Christian," "The Babylonian Captivity of the Church," and "An Appeal to the German Nobility." This treasure trove provides a good introduction to Luther's thought.

Dinesh D'Souza. Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus. (1991).

This book is a chapter in the larger explanation of the decline of traditional values noted by historian Paul Johnson and political theorist Allan Bloom. D'Souza shows how American universities have shifted their emphasis from scholarship and individual achievement to mindless policies and ideological pedagogy. In his view, affirmative action based on race and gender has become more important than genuinely creative scholarship. This book is a must read for members of the collegiate community.

Charles W. Dunn and J. David Woodard. The Conservative Tradition in America. (1996).

Earning national distinction from the Association of College and Research Libraries in Choice magazine as a priority purchase, this book surveys political conservatism in the United States. Written by the Dean of the School of Arts and Letters at Grove City College and his former colleague at Clemson University, it examines the growing importance of this political tradition, various definitions of conservatism, and its fundamental principles. Dunn and Woodard also discuss the non-American roots of this tradition and its development in the United States since 1776. The authors conclude by analyzing conservatism's political, economic, and religious past and assessing its current state and future prospects. The book includes a helpful selected topical bibliography.

Jonathan Edwards. Charity and Its Fruits. (1738).

While not ordinarily acknowledged by the scholars of Edwards as one of his greatest works, this treatise is one of the most important on Christian ethics. Edwards demonstrates point-by-point in this treatise on I Corinthians 13 what is required in imitating God. Profoundly theological, anthropological, Christological, and practical, the work is also a model for Christian ethical methodology.

C. Stephen Evans. Wisdom and Humanness in Psychology: Prospects for a Christian Approach. (1989).

Evans attempts to reform what he sees as psychology's mechanistic approach to human behavior by infusing that approach with a rational, motivational framework. The result is that he walks a fine line between traditional, empiricist, natural science-oriented psychology and more contemporary approaches to psychology that draw upon a hermeneutical model for understanding human action. He advocates a psychology that is empirical (but not empiricist), interpretive of human nature, willing to make and criticize value judgments, and respectful of human responsibility.

Viktor E. Frankl. Man's Search for Meaning. (1963).

Frankl describes his experiences during several years of confinement in a Nazi concentration camp. Writing from the perspective of a theistic existentialist, Frankl attributes his survival to his ability to find freedom and meaning in his internment. Freedom, in the final analysis, is seen as our ability to choose our attitude in a given set of circumstances. Meaning is our ability to find purpose in any given set of circumstances. Frankl's book helps put into perspective our own struggles and experiences, as we are given the opportunity to find freedom and meaning in any and all of our experiences.

Francis Fukuyama. The End of History and the Last Man. (1992).

In 1989 Fukuyama dropped an intellectual bombshell on academicians and journalists with the publication of a groundbreaking article, on which this book is based. His argument is that history, understood as humanity's intellectual development, has ended in the realization of the democratic capitalist state. This provocative thesis is explored further by analyzing what Nietzsche termed "the last man," that is, the ultimate human product at the end of this development. Fukuyama's arresting treatment raises many challenging questions.

S. D. Gaede. Where Gods May Dwell: Understanding the Human Condition. (1985).

Challenging widely held convictions that efforts to base scholarship on distinctively Christian presuppositions are either wrong, irrelevant, or inconsequential, Gaede strives to think Biblically about the method and subject of the social sciences, especially human relationships. Since all scholarship is rooted in improvable assumptions, Gaede argues, Christians should approach their disciplines from an explicitly Biblical perspective, which will allow them to speak prophetically to a needy world.

George Gilder. Men and Marriage. (1986).

Gilder draws on biology, anthropology, and sociology to address something obvious to everyone but the "experts" who write family textbooks-all healthy societies knit most males into responsible relationships with wives and children through marriage and family. Failure to do so threatens the welfare of everyone and invites social breakdown. Gilder thoroughly documents the sad effects of separating men from marriage and children in modern America.

David Gress. From Plato to NATO: The Idea of the West and Its Opponents. (1998).

If you read only one Western civilization book, this should be it. Gress argues that the success of Western civilization, with its emphasis on freedom and dynamic change, rests upon a unique intellectual mixture of Greek, Roman, Christian, and Germanic sources. This book is an especially useful antidote to analyses that downplay Christianity's indispensable contributions to Western civilization while overemphasizing those of the Greeks and Romans.

Os Guinness and John Seel, eds. No God But God: Breaking with the Idols of our Age. (1992).

Arguing that idolatry is the most discussed problem in the Bible and one of the most powerful spiritual and intellectual concepts in the believer's arsenal, the authors of this stimulating book define idolatry as a contemporary issue and explore its relevance to contemporary American evangelicalism. In this book an impressive group of thinkers discuss the positive and negative aspects of psychology, management, politics, the role of pastors, and Christian attitudes toward our country, our world, and our enemies.

Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist Papers. (1788).

Considered to be one of the most significant works of American political thought, The Federalist consists of 85 papers that were published in New York newspapers from October 1787 to August 1788. The papers, published anonymously under the name Publius, were penned to support the ratification of the recently written Constitution. They delineate the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, make an argument for a stronger union, and explain the design the new government.

E. Harris Harrison. The Christian Scholar in the Age of Reformation. (1956).

Harrison examines the relationship between piety and learning in the lives of several leading sixteenth-century Renaissance humanists and Protestant Reformers, most notably Erasmus, Luther, and Calvin. Unlike many modern Christians, Harrison concludes, these sixteenth-century figures did not create a division between the sacred and the secular that totally segregated faith and reason. Instead, Harrison argues, their faith inspired their scholarship and, more importantly, their scholarship was an extension of their faith commitments.

Nathan O. Hatch. The Democratization of American Christianity. (1989).

Hatch's central argument is that the forces that created the American republic have also shaped subsequent American Christianity. He contends specifically that populism has created an American Christianity that is anti-intellectual, anti-clerical, anti-institutional (and therefore anti-ecclesiastical), and anti-authoritarian. Many of these particular themes are expanded and developed by Mark A. Noll in his The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind.

F. A. Von Hayek. The Road to Serfdom. (1944).

Hayek dedicated this book to the "socialists of all parties" because he hoped to convince them of its main thesis-that both socialism and fascism are species of totalitarianism. In America, it hit the burgeoning trend toward government planning like an atomic bomb and sealed Hayek's reputation as a defender of a free society. In its rush to embrace a totalitarian dystopia, the world, he argued, was failing to realize the benefits bestowed upon it by classical liberal philosophy.

Walter R. Hearn. Being a Christian in Science. (1997).

Hearn's forty years of work as a scientist, an editor, and a journalist have enabled him to provide some very practical wisdom about how people can keep their priorities in proper order as they compete in the scientific community. These priorities include first and foremost serving God, while also developing a quality family life, performing excellent research, winning grants, and teaching effectively in both formal and informal settings. As Terry Morrison, Director of Faculty Ministries of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship writes, "This book is perfect for college students and for senior scientists. It glorifies God."

E .D. Hirsch, Jr. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. (1987).

With this book, E. D. Hirsch, Jr. placed himself at the center of the debate surrounding what should constitute the proper school curriculum. He proposes that it is imperative and possible for citizens of an increasingly mobile society to share not simply the same space but a common foundation of accurate data, a world of discourse, and a heritage of ideas. His "core knowledge" sequence opposes individualistic and developmentally oriented programs in favor of specific content that eliminates diversity in academic preparation.

Peter C. Hodgson. God's Wisdom: Toward a Theology of Education. (1999).

This bold theology of education contends that education and religion are inseparable. Hodgson writes, "God's wisdom ... drives thinking to its depths, raises imagination to its heights, and draws practice to its telos." Drawing upon classical and modern theological resources as well as postmodern theories, he argues that religion and more specifically, God's wisdom, must be central in a truly liberal education. Well-researched and originally argued, this study is very relevant to all those involved in the work of knowing and teaching God's wisdom.

W. Andrew Hoffecker and Gary Scott Smith, eds. Building a Christian World View Vol. 1: God, Man, and Knowledge. (1986). Vol. 2: The Universe, Society, and Ethics. (1988).

Written by current and former Grove City College faculty, these volumes trace the development of these six topics from ancient Greece and Hebrew cultures to the present day, focusing on different groups and individuals as relevant. The authors seek to provide a Biblical critique of how various civilizations, philosophical movements, and key thinkers have understood these major concepts. The authors argue that people's presuppositions direct how they comprehend, explain, and defend their convictions about these matters.
Charles Hummel. The Galileo Connection. (1986).

This very readable study seeks to resolve conflicts between science and the Bible. Hummel examines the work and lives of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton, and then discusses the relationship between the Bible and science. He addresses such contemporary questions as "Does the Creation story in Genesis conflict with evolution?" and "Do miracles conflict with scientific laws?" As astrophysicist Owen Gingerich says, the book provides a "clear analysis" of a "Christian understanding of modern science."

Samuel P. Huntington. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order. (1996).

Huntington suggests that future conflicts among major players on the world stage will reflect disputes among civilizations more than the "old fashioned" ideological or great power conflicts. Indeed, any cursory overview of the major trouble spots in the world today reveals that they occur on what he calls the "fault lines" of civilization, where two or more civilizations encounter one another on their borders. Bosnia, Sudan, India, and Pakistan in particular come to mind, and his analytical framework is capable of explaining many more conflicts, as well.

William James. The Varieties of Religious Experience. (1902).

Indisputably the single greatest classic of the psychology of religion, Varieties is written by perhaps America's foremost psychologist. It is shaped from start to finish by the author's long-standing interest in the philosophical justification of religious faith. Although the empirical evidence cited in the book is meager by contemporary standards, James affirms unequivocally that religion, largely because people often care so deeply about it, can dramatically transform individual lives, and thus the world at large.

Paul Johnson. Intellectuals. (1988).

In this volume Johnson critiques the thought and influence of leading thinkers that gave birth to the relativism he discusses in Modern Times. He is brutally frank in his evaluation of his subjects. They include Jean Jacques Rousseau, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Henrik Ibsen, Leo Tolstoy, Bertrand Russell, Ernest Hemingway, and others. Whether or not one agrees fully with Johnson's assessments, Intellectuals is colorful and thought provoking.

Paul Johnson. Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Nineties. (1992).

Johnson accounts for the mood and direction of twentieth-century history by demonstrating that "ideas have consequences." He explains how the century came to be dominated by new secular ideas that replaced the essentially Christian worldview that had prevailed in the previous era. By 1920, relativism was the prevailing mood, the controlling idea with regard to time and space, good and evil, and above all else, values. The revised edition includes a chapter that traces the effect of the "winds of change" that indicated the collectivism of the twentieth century was over.

Phillip Johnson. Darwin on Trial. (1991).

Using his skills as a lawyer, Johnson argues that the claims of Darwinism are based less on scientific evidences than on a naturalistic worldview. As the book's title suggests, Johnson's hope is to shift the burden of proof in the historical creation/evolution conflict away from a defense of creationism to a defense of Darwinism. By doing this, he hopes to expose the pervasiveness and weakness of the naturalistic religion that underlies the Darwinist perspective.

Phillip Johnson. Reason in the Balance. (1995).

In this follow up to his earlier book, Darwin on Trial, Johnson shows how Darwinist assumptions underlie current controversies in ethics, law, and public policy. His book is about "God, sex education, evolution, abortion, the search for a grand unified theory in physics, what our public schools should teach, the basis of law, [and] the meaning of reason." As J. P. Moreland, Professor of Philosophy at Biola University, argues, those who want "to understand the contemporary culture wars and be involved in their resolution" must not neglect this book.

Paul A. Kienel, Ollie Gibbs, and Sharon Berry, eds. Philosophy of Christian School Education. (1995).

This book provides a sweeping introduction of its subject by integrating philosophy and the Word of God. Although primarily written for those involved in the Christian school movement, it can help all readers "be ready to give a reason for the hope that lies within." This work is broad in scope yet remarkably unified, considering it contains the contributions of seventeen authors. Those without formal training in philosophy or theology can easily comprehend it. This book seeks to help its readers "understand the fundamental principles of what makes Christian education truly Christian" and provides a strong foundation for this worthy pursuit.

Russell Kirk. The Conservative Mind from Burke to Santayana. (1953).

The late Russell Kirk could be called the "Dean of American Conservatism." In this book he writes about that set of ideas, usually identified with Edmund Burke but coming forward to T. S. Eliot, which together constitute conservative thought. The thinkers Kirk discusses believe in a transcendent order produced by a divine Creator, recognize the variety and mystery of human existence, oppose a leveling equality, endorse the close relationship between liberty and property, and are suspicious of radical reconstruction of society.

Thomas S. Kuhn. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. (1962).

Kuhn brilliantly analyzes the nature, causes, and consequences of revolutions in basic scientific concepts that are fundamental to scientific advance. He attempts to find a general pattern applicable to all fields of science in all ages. Kuhn argues that "normal science" presupposes a conceptual and instrumental framework accepted without question by an entire scientific community. As a result, scientific research tends to be a form of puzzle solving rather than an exploration of the unknown. Unexpected novelties can then occur only through a breakdown of previously accepted rules. Such breakdowns, however, frequently happen and produce "crises" that cannot be resolved within the pre-established framework. Science returns to "normal" only when the community accepts a new conceptual structure.

Abraham Kuyper. Lectures on Calvinism. (1899).

In these lectures, given in 1898 at Princeton, Kuyper, a theologian, author, and former prime minister of the Netherlands, sets forth Calvinism as a life-system, and critically compares it with other worldviews. He masterfully explored the implications of Calvinism for religion, politics, art, society, and culture. The book's unifying theme is simply that all of creation was made by God, exists for God, and belongs to God. His Word should provide the ultimate basis by which men and women deal with each sphere of existence.

Christopher Lasch. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. (1978).

Lasch argues that the traditional American culture of competitive individualism is dying because individualism, taken to an extreme, has pushed "the pursuit of happiness to the dead end of a narcissistic preoccupation with the self." Rugged individualism and focus on personal salvation have been replaced by self-absorption ("narcissism") expressed in a therapeutic worldview that encourages people to constantly search for personal well being. Their preoccupation with narcissism explains why so many modern people fail at relationships, fear others, and have no interest in history.

C. S. Lewis. The Abolition of Man. (1944).

If Mere Christianity serves as a fine introduction to Lewis and Miracles shows the depth of his ability as an apologist, The Abolition of Man contains intriguing "cultural prophetic" insights. Using a grammar book for elementary school children that advocated a fairly romantic and relativistic stance on the use of words, Lewis shows the dangers of a culture that contains no objective standards and rests more on feelings than a robust life of the mind. The book is prophetic because Lewis wrote it long before the rise of the philosophical school called postmodernism that advocates a type of linguistic and cultural relativism. While some fine books provide a contemporary Christian critique of postmodernism, Lewis' work delights readers through its eloquence, thoughtfulness, and wisdom.

C. S. Lewis. Mere Christianity. (1943).

Lewis, perhaps one of the best-known Christians of the twentieth century, explains the very heart of classic Christianity. Using logic, common sense, and wit, Lewis analyzes the underlying assumptions of non-believers while exploring four main questions. First, he explores the issue of the existence of God. Second, he discusses the nature of a human relationship with God and the necessity of the incarnation and atonement of Christ. Third, he examines the grace of God that upholds that relationship and the call to live the Christ life in our ethics. Fourth, he analyzes the need for believers to understand that growth in doctrinal understanding helps produce a vital piety of head and heart. The book displays Lewis' logic and faithfulness to Scripture as well as his desire to tell his own story (which can be found in autobiographical form in Surprised by Joy and somewhat in the allegorical Pilgrim's Regress) in the broader context of the "faith once given to the saints (Jude 4)."

C. S. Lewis. Miracles: A Preliminary Study. (1947).

In many ways one of Lewis' most challenging work in terms of complexity, Miracles handles a major issue in Christian defense of the faith, particularly since the eighteenth century Enlightenment writings of the skeptic David Hume whom Lewis seeks to rebut directly. This apologetic work has a slightly different flavor than some of Lewis' other ones. In many of them, questions of logic and evidences for Christian positions form the starting point of departure. Here, he analyzes presuppositions of both believers in miracles and skeptics and then tries to show how the believer's position is more consistent than the skeptic's. Thus, from a worldview standpoint, he believes that the skeptic while seemingly more "open" is actually far more closed than the believer. Lewis does exhort believers to avoid a nave position on miracles and insists that "miracle accounts" should be seen in light of the "Grand Miracle," the incarnation of the Creator God through the person of Jesus Christ.

Abraham Lincoln. Speeches and Writings, Vol. 1: 1832-1858; Vol. 2: 1859-1865. (1989). especially Perpetuation of our Political Institutions

No American President wrote better than Lincoln, and few of his essays are more biting and prophetic that this one. Lincoln's concerns about mob rule destroying the rule of law are as relevant now as they were when he expressed them in 1838. Especially important are his observations about the dangers ambitious men present to democracy in a context where freedom is taken for granted.

David Lindberg and Ronald Numbers, eds. God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science. (1986).

This collection of essays by distinguished historians discusses the historical relations of Christianity and science from the early Christian era to the twentieth century. These writers share the conviction that the interaction of science and Christianity has been profoundly important in shaping Western civilization. Their essays emphasize the positive mutual impacts of science and Christianity and dispel the notion that these two historical voices have always been in conflict.

David Livingstone, D. G. Hart, and Mark Noll, eds. Evangelicals and Science in Historical Perspective. (1999).

This collection of essays takes a broader view of the relationship between science and religion than merely examining the creation/evolution debate. It covers the period from the 1600s to the present. The first three chapters, which assume readers have much familiarity with the writers in this field, provide an overview and orientation. Chapters covering more specific topics follow, some of which are more accessible to the nonhistorian. In particular, the chapters describing the history of the term "creation science" and the twentieth-century search for Noah's Ark are easy to read and illuminating.

John Locke. The Two Treatises of Government. (1690).

The Two Treatises is one of the most important texts in the history of political thought. The First Treatise critiques absolute monarchy, and the Second Treatise presents a view of the origin, ends, and extent of government. The Second Treatise contends that people are naturally non-political but choose to form a government based on a social contract to insure peace and security. It also includes important discussions of property, the rule of law, separation of powers, and political revolution.

D. Bruce Lockerbie. The Timeless Moment: Creativity and the Christian Faith. (1980).

Lockerbie's celebration of the Christian life and creativity is filled with art, beauty, and promise. By "the arts" he means not only the traditional fine arts, but also the vast range of human experience: "Gardening, cooking, architecture, sport and recreation, politics and government, travel, family and other social conduct, correspondence, and even conversation may also be art when received as gifts from God, invested like the talents of Jesus' parable, and returned to the Giver in his praise." His reflections call us beyond the pabulum of popular culture to a feast of truth and beauty in Christ.

David Lyon. Sociology and the Human Image. (1983).

Lyon seeks to demonstrate how Christian commitment, which social scientists usually avoid, can constructively contribute to their disciplines and provide a better understanding of the modern world. Rejecting the label "Christian sociology" as counter-productive, he argues that social theorists who espouse Biblical principles should constantly dialogue with contemporary sociology. Lyons shows that many of the disagreements among sociologists are rooted in divergent views of what it means to be human and offers a Biblical understanding of humanness as an integrating principle for the discipline.

J. Gresham Machen. Christianity and Liberalism. (1923).

During the 1920s the United States experienced turbulent religious disputes, most of which centered on the rise of "modernism" in the older historical American denominations. Modernism sought to accommodate the supernatural and miraculous in classic Christian teaching to the increasingly accepted position that all of life could be understood through natural processes open to rational investigation. In doing so, the "modernists" thought they were preserving a Christian witness in an increasingly secularized world. Machen, a New Testament professor at Princeton Theological Seminary, was seen as a leader in the counter movement called "fundamentalism" (a term that differs substantially from how it is used today and a label that Machen disliked). He countered that such an attempt to understand and reinterpret God, Christ, the Bible, and salvation in naturalistic, rationalistic, and psychological terms actually turned Christianity on its head and made it into an altogether new religion unrecognizable from the historic and Biblical Christian faith.

Alasdair MacIntyre. After Virtue. (1981).

One of the most significant works of moral philosophy of the late twentieth century, After Virtue provides an analysis of contemporary moral discourse, a critique of the Enlightenment attempt to construct a purely rationalistic and individualistic moral philosophy, and a rich account of traditional virtues. He gives special attention to Aristotle and to the importance of the community in moral formation.

Charles H. Malik. A Christian Critique of the University. (1982).

Arguing that the university influences the world more than any other social institution, Malik analyzes what Jesus Christ thinks of this great institution. He maintains that Western universities have abandoned their former commitment to the Christian worldview and have adopted a naturalistic, humanistic, relativistic, materialistic, skeptical perspective. Following an extensive critique of both the natural sciences and the humanities, Malik discusses ways to restore a Biblical perspective in contemporary universities.

George Marsden. The Outrageous Idea of Christian Scholarship. (1997).

After explaining why Christian perspectives are not welcome in most of American higher education today, Marsden refutes the primary arguments used to exclude them, especially the contentions that they are insufficiently empirical and that their use violates the separation of church and state. Instead of being irrelevant or antithetical to scholarly activity, these viewpoints, he insists, can contribute significantly to both academic and campus life. He challenges scholars and institutions to reevaluate their intellectual presuppositions and their commitment to such contemporary ideologies as naturalistic reductionism and moral relativism.

George Marsden. The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief. (1994).

Through the use of case studies, Marsden examines how secular assumptions and values gradually replaced Christian presuppositions and principles at leading American universities. Exploring both long-term trends and defining moments at Harvard, Yale, the University of California, Johns Hopkins, the University of Michigan, Princeton, and other pace-setting institutions, Marsden shows how the religious perspectives that once dominated American higher education have been virtually excluded. He urges the academy to once again make room for traditional religious viewpoints.

Paul Marshall. Thine is the Kingdom: A Biblical Perspective on the Nature of Government and Politics Today. (1984).

Marshall discusses the implications of creation, the cultural mandate, the fall, and redemption for political life. He explains the purposes of government and evaluates the place of law and morality in politics. Marshall uses Biblical guidelines to examine how governments should deal with economics, the welfare state, and international relations. He argues that Christian political action is a communal task to be carried out in light of the hope of the final coming of God's kingdom.

John Stuart Mill. On Liberty. (1859).

On Liberty is a classic text in defense of political liberty. Mill attempts to provide a principle for assessing when government can legitimately interfere in individual action. His "harm principle" is that government and society should not interfere in individual activities unless they harm another individual. Mill argues on utilitarian grounds, not from the basis of natural rights. According to him, it is useful for advanced human societies to allow freedom in self-regarding actions.

Perry Miller. The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century. (1939).

Miller revived serious scholarly study of New England Puritanism after the largely dismissive approach taken by Progressive historians. Miller's intensive study of the Puritan brand of piety underscored its debt to Augustinianism and de-emphasized (mistakenly in the minds of some) its connections to Calvin. Subsequent analyses of Puritanism have revised Miller's portrait considerably, but the scope, depth, and sharp insights this volume offers still make it indispensable for anyone considering the life of the mind and the Reformed tradition.

Ludwig Von Mises. Human Action: A Treatise on Economics. (1949).

Written by the twentieth century's foremost champion of the market economy, this book is arguably that century's greatest treatise on economics. Mises constructs a general theory of the market economy showing that the division of labor, and with it modern standards of living and population levels, can exist only in a society based on private property and contract. He explodes prevailing economic fallacies, common and not so common alike. The book contains his devastating critiques of fascism, various types of socialism, and government interventionism, as well as his famous theory of the trade cycle.

J. P. Moreland. Christianity and the Nature of Science. (1989).

Moreland, who holds degrees in chemistry, theology, and philosophy, has become an important figure in describing the interplay between Christianity and science. The first five chapters of this book explore the nature of science and critique the claim that science is totally objective and absolutely true. The discussion is technical, while briefly exploring the main views of the philosophy of science. The final chapter applies these discussions to the question of whether creation science can appropriately be called science.

Edmund S. Morgan. The Puritan Family. (1966).

This masterpiece provides an overview of Puritan theology and practices of domestic relations and social order in seventeenth-century New England. Beautifully written and thoroughly researched, it is more than a fine social history. For thoughtful Christians tired of the shallow, self-serving nostrums of most modern marriage and family experts, this book edifies and instructs. It is also a wonderful corrective for the bigoted portraits of Puritans that are still far too common.

Kenneth A. Myers. All God's Children and Blue Suede Shoes: Christians and Popular Culture. (1989).

This very significant study of cultural anthropology from a decidedly Christian perspective discusses how the forms of various cultural activity are as significant as their content. Myers' work provides a basis for serious reflection on the effects of culture, especially popular culture, and the adequacy (or lack thereof) of popular genres to communicate Christian truth. Its ramifications extend into the areas of creative art, use of leisure time, Christian aesthetics, and Christian worship.

Ronald Nash. Christian Faith and Historical Understanding. (1984).

This book provides a superb brief treatment of the objective historical basis of Christian belief. Nash guides readers through the development of different understandings of historical study during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. One particularly helpful chapter presents a searching critique of Rudolf Bultmann's division between kerygma and myth, faith and history. The twin challenges of pietist subjectivism (prevalent in contemporary evangelical circles) and, more recently, postmodernist relativism make Nash's solid and accessible study invaluable.

Ronald Nash. Poverty and Wealth: The Christian Debate Over Capitalism. (1986).

This book is an appeal to Christians to accept the market economy not only for its efficiency but because it conforms more than any other system to Biblical ethics. Nash argues that the economy, like the natural world, is governed by laws established by God. When man conforms his institutions and actions to these laws, he prospers, and when he rebels against these laws, he suffers. God has ordained, as part of the natural order, the poverty of socialism and the wealth of capitalism.

Lesslie Newbigin. Foolishness to the Greeks: The Gospel and Western Culture. (1986).

A bishop in the Church of South India who was active in ecumenical circles, Newbigin published little until after his retirement in 1975. Since then, he has become acknowledged as a leading authority on missiology. This volume addresses "what would be involved in a genuinely missionary encounter between the gospel and the culture that is shared by the peoples of Europe and North America." Newbigin approaches the postmodern West in a fresh way as a challenging mission field. His chapter on the Christian dialogue with secular science is particularly illuminating.

John Henry Newman. The Idea of a University. (1852).

Newman, perhaps the most influential English Roman Catholic theologian of the nineteenth century, originally delivered the content of this book in connection with the inauguration of a new Catholic university in Dublin, Ireland in 1852. He argued that since the idea of a university should embody all knowledge, the study of Christian theology should therefore be included in a university education. Newman's work has provided both Catholics and Protestants with a compelling rationale for including or reintroducing the study of theology in the curricula of undergraduate and graduate education.

H. Richard Niebuhr. Christ and Culture. (1951).

In this very influential work, Niebuhr describes five "ideal types" or historical perspectives toward cultural life. Disagreeing about the nature, importance, and impact of culture, these positions advocate different responses toward political, economic, and social life: withdrawal because they are evil and corrupting (Anabaptists); uncritical acceptance because they are essentially good (liberal Protestants); control over them by the institutional church because it possesses the sanctifying channels of grace (Catholics and Anglicans); efforts to restrain their sinful effects (Lutherans); and active labor to transform them (Calvinists).

Reinhold Niebuhr. Faith and History: A Comparison of Christian and Modern Views of History. (1949).

In this book Niebuhr sought, through an exploration of the Biblical and contemporary/secular views of history, "to understand how the spiritual complacency of a culture which believed in redemption through history is now on the edge of despair." He ably debunks the Enlightenment confidence that material progress is redemptive. His call to return to a realistic Biblical anthropology and his emphasis on the universal need for divine grace are as timely now as they were when this work was published in 1949.

Reinhold Niebuhr. The Irony of American History. (1952).

One of Niebuhr's most significant later works, this volume is a trenchant historical analysis of America's place and role in the world in the light of a Christian philosophy of history. Although Niebuhr's methodology here is not flawless, his moral insights are many and clearly stated. The result is an overview of the American past that is refreshingly different from those offered both by the academic Left and some Christian popularizers.

Mark A. Noll. The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind. (1994).

While Nathan Hatch's Democratization of American Christianity explains the roots of anti-intellectualism in evangelical sub-culture, Noll's Scandal of the Evangelical Mind analyzes its fruit. Noll's study helps to explain how evangelicals can be so numerous in American culture without having any significant cultural impact. The abandonment of serious intellectual pursuit as a concomitant of Christian faith has both confused and stifled the evangelical witness to its culture.

Mark A. Noll, Nathan O. Hatch, and George M. Marsden. The Search for Christian America. (1983).

Three leading Protestant evangelical historians examine Puritan New England, the First Great Awakening, the American Revolution, and other aspects of our nation's heritage and conclude that America has not been distinctly or even predominately based on the ideals and norms taught in Scripture. While Christian values have deeply influenced American private and public life, they argue the belief that America was founded as a "Christian nation" is historically inaccurate and thwarts both evangelism and Christian social activism.

Michael Novak. Business as a Calling: Work and the Examined Life. (1996).

This book is a spirited defense of commerce as a worthy career and of democratic capitalism as the best socioeconomic system among known alternatives. Novak argues that business has a vested interest in promoting goodness because it cannot prosper in the absence of such cardinal virtues as cooperation, courage, honesty, industry, innovation, practicality, and realism. He documents the many ways in which for-profit concerns benefit host communities and the wider world by living up to their basic obligations-creating new jobs, earning appropriate returns on investments, producing wealth, promoting respect for the rule of law, and satisfying customers.

Michael Novak. The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism. (1982).

This is a nuts and bolts book about how and why systems that allow "free choice" produce better goods and services. It is a must read for people in countries, especially Latin America ones, where poverty has been considered a virtue and production has been conceived as evil. Novak refutes the "socialist" concept that only capitalists are greedy. Marx indeed never took into consideration a human spirit that could be inspired to do things for the glory of the Creator.

Marvin Olasky. The Tragedy of American Compassion. (1992).

In this elegant and persuasive social history, Olasky details a pre-twentieth century America in which charity, rooted in a Judeo-Christian understanding of human nature, was associated with the promotion of personal responsibility, independence, morality, and strong families. Then he documents its modern degeneration into entitlements which systematically ignored spiritual needs, fostered dependence, and undermined families. His book also provides excellent models for creative, effective, Biblically-based charity.

Nancy R. Pearcey and Charles B. Thaxton. The Soul of Science: Christian Faith and Natural Philosophy. (1994).

Many people today fail to recognize the crucial role that the Judeo-Christian foundation played and plays in the development of modern science. This book refutes the concept, prevalent in our culture, that science and atheism are closely allied. Many examples from various disciplines are described that point to the unmistakable fingerprint of God in all of nature. This is an important contribution to the emerging intelligent design movement.

Neil Postman. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. (1985).

A student of Marshall McLuhan, though critical of some of his observations, Postman argues that when an image-based, entertainment-centered medium (television) becomes the primary means by which a culture knows and communicates, there is (and must be) a comparative decline in people's ability to think and communicate analytically and cogently. He also contends that the movement from typography to electronic media causes a trivializing of all that this electronic media touches.

Del Ratzsch. Science and Its Limits: The Natural Sciences in Christian Perspective. (2000).

This book provides a philosophy of science, discussing what science is all about and how traditional conceptions of science have changed. The author explores both the competence and the limits of science, explaining what it can and cannot tell us. Various scientific challenges to religious belief are examined. The book provides useful advice on how to approach issues pertaining to the relationship of modern science and Christian faith.

Bruce R. Reichenbach and V. Elving Anderson. On Behalf of God: A Christian Ethic for Biology. (1995).

Authored jointly by a philosopher and a biologist, this book adopts the Biblical stewardship paradigm of "filling," "ruling," and "caring" as the basis for making ethical decision in biology. Beyond environmental issues, the authors focus on issues of assisted reproduction, the human genome, and human sexuality. They analyze some of the tensions in the stewardship paradigm and provide a fresh perspective of Biblical principles that bear on moral issues of knowing and doing in modern biology.

Wilhelm Roepke. A Humane Economy: The Social Framework of the Free Market. (1958).

Roepke was one of the twentieth century's greatest foes of collectivism. He argues that collectivism is the mortal enemy of Christian humanism. By crushing the individual person, collectivism rejects the truths that God made each person in His image and with an immortal soul. In this book, he defends the market economy as a necessary part of an anti-collective society. Although necessary, the market economy does not constitute a human society, but must be circumscribed by a Christian social framework.

H. R. Rookmaaker. The Creative Gift: Essays on Art and the Christian Life. (1981).

Rookmaaker's collection of essays provides an excellent starting point for anyone seeking to live a Christian life in a broken world. Addressing first our general calling within God's creation, he moves on to the unique role that art can play in our lives. Of particular interest are his study of creativity and his analysis of whether art needs to be justified.

H. R. Rookmaaker. Modern Art and the Death of a Culture. (1970).

This seminal study offers a critique of twentieth-century culture as reflected in the arts of the time. Analyzing both high and popular culture from a broad historical, social, and philosophical standpoint, Rookmaaker lays bare the depravity of our era, offering redemption of both the arts and the culture at large through the Christian message.

Milton Rosenberg and L. E. Birdzell. How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World. (1986).

How the West became wealthy requires a definitive answer, especially in an age when moral relativism reigns supreme. The authors argue convincingly that freedom is the foundation of national wealth and of all the benefits that accrue from it. Neither historical accident nor the old claim that the West exploited other nations explains its ascendancy. Societies based on free institutions generate a plethora of blessings; wealth is just one of them.

Hugh Ross. The Creator and the Cosmos. (1993).

Astrophysicist Ross shows how the cosmological discoveries of the twentieth century reveal the presence of God. Written at a level the layperson can understand, Ross explains why Stephen Hawking calls the discovery of the cosmic background radiation "the discovery of the twentieth century, if not of all time." Ross shows how this radiation is compelling evidence of the existence of God. The book also includes one of the clearest expositions of the "fine-tuning" of the universe, showing how over 100 parameters must be so well fine-tuned for the universe to exist that it cannot be "accidental."

Leland Ryken. Culture in Christian Perspective: A Door to Understanding and Enjoying the Arts. (1996).

Ryken's study is an excellent starting point for learning how to analyze and appreciate the arts. With the goal of helping Christians relate human culture to their faith, he presents not only basic methods for approaching and interpreting the arts, but also ways of thinking Christianly about them. Of particular interest in our action-driven culture is his chapter on creativity, beauty, and recreation, in which he presents a Christian perspective on leisure.

Leland Ryken, Redeeming the Time: A Christian Approach to Work and Leisure (1995)

Ryken, an English professor at Wheaton College, analyzes and applies Biblical principles relevant to labor and play. Drawing on insights from Biblical studies, theology, history, literature, and the social sciences, he explains the nature of work and leisure, discusses problems connected with their contemporary practice, and offers solutions for them. Ryken maintains that work and leisure are God's gifts to the human race and challenges Christians to examine and live by Biblical teachings on these interrelated aspects of life.

David Sacks and Peter Thiel. The Diversity Myth: Multiculturalism and the Political Intolerance on Campus. (1998).

If you ever wondered if Beethoven was black, if Shakespeare was a male chauvinist pig, if all men are oppressors, and Western civilization is the source of most of the world's miseries, then read this stunning intellectual journey undertaken by two Stanford undergraduates at what used to be one of America's finest universities. Be prepared to be shocked, however. After poring over this account of their struggles in the multicultural swamp, the reader is hard pressed to avoid any conclusion other than that a considerable portion of America's academic elite has simply gone insane.

Dorothy Sayers. The Mind of the Maker. (1941).

In an attempt to provide understanding, traditional Christianity has elucidated its central tenets in creeds. But-despite our best efforts-concepts from the creeds such as the image of God, the Trinity, free will, and evil continue to elude us. In this masterful examination of such central teachings, Sayers parallels God's creation with the human creative process, thus illuminating both.

Francis Schaeffer, The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer: A Christian Worldview, 5 vols. (1985). especially How Shall We Then Live?, Escape from Reason, and The God Who is There.

While some of Schaeffer's writings in this collection represent outstanding examples of popular theology in the best sense of the word, throughout all of them he communicates and defends a pervasively Christian world-and-life-view. Every page, if not every paragraph, of Schaeffer's writings contends aggressively against the secularist mindset of the closing century of the second millennium.

James Sire. The Universe Next Door: A Basic Worldview Catalog. (1997).

A long-time editor of InterVarsity Press, Sire provides a clear, succinct introduction to many of the world's most prominent meaning systems: Christian theism, deism, naturalism, nihilism, existentialism, Eastern pantheistic monism, the new age movement, and postmodernism. Chapters analyze how particular worldviews understand the nature of prime reality, the external world, and human beings as well as life after death, knowledge, morality, and history. Sire critiques alternative worldviews in light of Biblical principles.

Adam Smith. Theory of Moral Sentiments. (1759).

Smith considered this work to be his most significant, and it is an important complement to his Wealth of Nations. Its primary purpose is to find a basis for ethical judgment in human psychology. Particularly significant is its discussion of the function of sympathy in human society. Smith argues that human beings have a connection to other human beings that makes us sensitive to their needs. This work can be set in contrast to the purely rationalistic moral philosophies of the Enlightenment.

Adam Smith. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. (1776).

The unifying principle of this classic economic tome is that the pursuit of self-interest produces a natural harmony in the economic realm. Investors, motivated by their desire for wealth and without knowing or intending it, are led by an invisible hand to promote the interests of society. Smith demonstrates that when government seeks to encourage certain industries or to discourage others it is likely to retard economic growth.

Thomas Sowell. The Vision of the Anointed: Self-Congratulation as a Basis for Social Policy. (1995).

Propelled by a sense of moral and intellectual superiority, says Sowell, social and political elites try to remake society according to their vision of the good life. This stunning treatment often reads like an expose, frequently inspiring in readers the reaction, "So that's why these groups behave that way!" The self-anointed have contempt for the common sense of ordinary citizens, as well as for democratic government, and do their best to carry out their schemes regardless of those two basic checks on elite arrogance. Constitutional government remains the best check, but, as always, eternal vigilance is required.

Alan Storkey. A Christian Social Perspective. (1979).

Lamenting the lack of Christian perspectives in the social sciences, Storkey examines the historical development of these disciplines and offers an alternative Christian viewpoint. Arguing that religious commitments shape all areas of life, he analyzes social relationships, community, class, marriage, the family, the mass media, the state, economics, and the church in light of Biblical presuppositions and principles. Christians must understand the relationship of faith to all areas of life, he maintains, and resist secular ideologies and trends that seek to make the gospel peripheral to public life.

John R. W. Stott. The Cross of Christ. (1986).

Written by one of the major evangelical leaders of the twentieth century, this book examines numerous aspects of the cross, providing an in-depth analysis that laypeople can understand. In addition to explaining such crucial topics as the necessity of the cross, the self-substitution of God, and the method and means of the atonement, Stott discusses some of the more practical aspects of the cross such as how it relates to the Lord's Supper and its significance for dealing with the civil authorities. Few books on this topic provide both such breadth and depth while remaining accessible to non-scholars.

Alexis de Tocqueville. Democracy in America. (1835, 1840).

Award winning historian Walter MacDougall once commented that there were only two sources of unimpeachable objectivity about the United States: God and Alexis de Tocqueville. This masterful social analysis of American democracy, carried out by a French aristocrat who traveled the country extensively during the 1830s, remains perhaps the single best commentary on the basic features of American democratic life ever written. Tocqueville's extraordinary insights into citizen's habits, social conditions, and government practices are stunning enough. But his speculations about alternative futures for the development of American egalitarianism are actually frightening, undoubtedly because of his uncanny prescience.

Twelve Southerners. I'll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition. (1930).

This symposium is the manifesto of a loosely defined group of academics, poets, and journalists who coalesced at Vanderbilt University in the late 1920s. Their collection of essays represented an unapologetic defense of the cultural assumptions that underlay life in the antebellum South and a sharp critique of the Northern "gospel of Progress." Although their portrait of the old South is fanciful, their critique of modern American materialism is searching and astute. Contemporary conservatives who have often turned a blind eye to the corrosive cultural impact of industrialism could certainly benefit from reading these Agrarians.

Cornelius Van Til. The Defense of the Faith. (1976).

From the 1930s to the 1970s, Van Til taught apologetics at Westminster Seminary in Philadelphia, a seminary formed in response to the "Fundamentalist-Modernist" controversy of the 1920s. Rather than appealing to "evidences" that could be understood through common sense categories agreed upon by people of varying backgrounds, Van Til advocated an approach called "presuppositionalism." Christian and non-Christian thinking and reasoning are characterized not by agreement but by "antithesis" because Christians seek to live by God's Word, while non-Christians repudiate God's Word and live "autonomously" (with themselves as the makers of knowledge). Thus, Van Til contended, one must argue on the basis of the underlying presuppositions and show how the Christian system is the only one that holds consistently together. Even those who disagree with Van Til's method, commend him and his school for the reminder that presuppositions do affect the way individuals look at the world. This work, one of many by Van Til, is an excellent introduction to this method of the defense of the Christian faith.

Paul C. Vitz. Psychology as Religion: The Cult of Self-worship. (1977).

The author argues that psychology has become a form of secular humanism based on a worship of the self and, thus, can be considered a religion. His argument rests on five theses: psychology as religion exhibits great strength, is deeply anti-Christian, can be criticized on many grounds quite independent of religion, is extensively supported by tax dollars through educational and social programs, and helps destroy individuals, families, and communities. The book makes some sweeping overgeneralizations. The most significant may be that the author is not really talking about psychology as much as a particular branch of psychology known as self-theory.

Eric Voegelin. Science, Politics, Gnosticism: Two Essays. (1968).

This slender volume perhaps is the most acute analysis of the origins of twentieth-century political pathologies ever written. Voegelin's most incisive comments focus on the exalted pretensions of Hegel and Marx to generate consummate histories, which deify humankind and create a closed universe where every question is answered within the confines of their philosophical systems. Hegel's cathedral of thought receives due attention, but Voegelin reserves his most searing comments to expose the intellectual dishonesty of Karl Marx and the outgrowth of his thought in modern totalitarianism.

Brian J. Walsh and J. Richard Middleton. The Transforming Vision:
Shaping a Christian World View. (1984).

Written for a popular audience, this work explores the basic contours of a distinctly evangelical Christian world and life view. The volume examines not only a Christian understanding of the doctrines of creation, the fall, and redemption but also the fundamental ideas that inform secular modernity. The authors conclude by demonstrating how these basic theological beliefs can constructively direct a Christian's attitude and approach toward both popular culture and scholarship.

Richard M. Weaver. Ideas Have Consequences. (1948).

Weaver argues that the dissolution of the West in the first half of the twentieth century stemmed from widespread commitment to nominalism, which denies the existence of all universals. Belief that there is no truth higher than, and independent of, human beings led to the rejection of ultimate truth and the espousal of ethical relativism. Weaver traces the impact of defeat of logical realism during the Middle Ages on Western views of God, nature, and humanity and explains how this development contributed to growing acceptance of materialism, biological necessity, environmental determinism, and behavioral psychology.

Max Weber. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. (1904).

Weber brilliantly traces the relationship between the spread of Calvinism, with its emphasis on the sovereignty of God, the concept of election, and the doctrine of vocation, and the development of preindustrial capitalism. Calvinists' commitment to hard work, frugality, and commercial enterprises significantly contributed to the rise of capitalism. Failing to recognize that Calvinists were motivated primarily by their desire to glorify God through their worldly callings, Weber argues ahistorically and incorrectly that they pursued these activities as a means of assuring themselves that they were elect.

David F. Wells. No Place for Truth, or, Whatever Happened to Evangelical Theology? (1993).

A disturbing description of the a-theological character of late-twentieth-century evangelicalism, this study is equally disturbing in its description of how thoroughly evangelicalism has been accommodated to its culture. Whether post-modern or post-post-modern, third-millennium American culture has lost any sense that meta-narratives might plausibly explain human existence per se. Wells traces how evangelical Christianity, far from challenging this point of view, embraces it (albeit unwittingly, at times), and proclaims at best an orthopathy rather than an orthodoxy (a common religious experience rather than a common religious doctrine).

Douglas Wilson. Recovering the Lost Tools of Learning: An Approach to Distinctively Christian Education. (1991).

Building on the seminal work of Dorothy Sayers, Wilson provides a clarion call and practical instruction for a "distinctively different, classical, Christian education." He places much of the blame for the current public education crisis on the separation of instruction from moral values and the bankruptcy of modern pedagogical methods. To reform education, Wilson urges schools to recover the "tools" used in the Middle Ages: grammar, dialectic, rhetoric, and Latin. His book and the efforts of professional conferences and competent, committed parents and teachers offer a different way to provide education in contemporary America.

Albert M. Wolters. Creation Regained: Biblical Basics for a Reformational Worldview. (1985).

After examining the content and nature of a distinctly Reformed Christian worldview, Wolters then provides a Reformed analysis of the three key periods in human history-Creation, Fall, and Redemption-and contends that evil is not a constitutive part of the world. He concludes this brief book by exploring how Christians can begin to restore the entire created order to its original good design.

Nicholas Wolterstorff. Reason Within the Bounds of Religion. (1976).

In this book, Wolterstorff, an outstanding Christian philosopher, argues that everyone has a worldview, although he does not use that word. He is concerned with how our faith commitments should affect our theorizing in science and other fields. As the Christian theorizes, he must decide what problems to work on and what to believe. Our most fundamental beliefs (our worldview assumptions) will decide these matters. As the title suggests, Wolterstorff argues that reason does not stand above our commitments and allow us to judge them.

Gordon S. Wood. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787. (1969).

Though its merits have sometimes been obscured by the prolonged debate over the "republican synthesis" that followed its publication, Wood's in-depth study of the political thought of the Founding Era remains invaluable. Building on the work of Bernard Bailyn, he stresses the formative influence of seventeenth and eighteenth-century English opposition thought upon American revolutionary leaders. From the writings of English Radical Whigs, colonists constructed a philosophy of history and politics that focused on the need for a virtuous citizenry and stressed the perennial conflict between state power and individual liberty. Many of the questions the Founders debated, which Wood so skillfully explores, remain crucial ones for Christian citizens.

Jan Wood. Christians at Work: Not Business as Usual. (1999).

This short yet helpful book focuses on business place culture and how to deal with the inevitable frustrations of working with others. Wood emphasizes basic Biblical principles and then applies them to the working world. If the reader has experienced fear, loss of control or anger in the course of work, then this small volume will be a beneficial resource.

Richard Wright. Biology Through the Eyes of Faith. (1989).

This work explores Biblical teachings on creation and stewardship, and it demonstrates that the study of biology can contribute significantly to the construction of a consistent Christian world view. The author emphasizes the Biblical message of dominion and how it relates to the application of science in areas such as medicine, genetics, and the environment.